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Highlights

Journal of Epidemiology

Volume 31, Issue 2 (February 2021)

The Major Source of Antioxidants Intake From Typical Diet Among Rural Farmers in North-eastern Japan in the 1990s
  • This is the first study to clarify the total antioxidant intake reflecting the foods commonly consumed in a Japanese population.
  • We constructed an antioxidant database of foods representative of the typical Japanese diet using 12-day dietary records from Japanese.
  • To consider the effects of peroxyl radical-scavenging activities, our database measured hydrophilic- and lipophilic antioxidant values on standardized methods.
  • We found that Japanese diet included rice and seafood, is a desirable diet with high in antioxidants, especially high in lipophilic antioxidants.
The Association Between Habitual Sleep Duration and Mortality According to Sex and Age: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study
  • Sleep durations ≥8 hours are associated with mortality from all-cause, CVD, and other causes in the Japanese general population.
  • Sex does not appear to be an effect modifier for the association between sleep duration and mortality outcomes.
  • Age with a cut-off at 50 years may be an effect modifier for the association between sleep duration and the risk of other-cause mortality in women.
Longitudinal Trends in Blood Pressure Associated With the Frequency of Laughter: The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS), a Longitudinal Study of the Japanese General Population
  • The frequency of laughter has known to been associated with cardiovascular disease and related biomarkers.
  • Although various mechanisms have accounted for the association between laughter and cardiovascular disease and related biomarkers, no previous studies have examined the association between laughter and changes in blood pressure levels.
  • Middle-aged men with low frequency of laughter had significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels over the four-year period.
  • The changes in blood pressure associated with infrequent laughter were more evident in men without antihypertensive medication use over four years and men with a current drinking status at the baseline.
Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology of Kawasaki Disease-Related Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Japan, 1999–2017
  • The interaction between patient age and sex influences the development of Kawasaki disease (KD)-related coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs).
  • KD occurrence in summer/autumn was higher in younger than in older participants.
  • The lowest age group (<6 months) showed an inverse summer/autumn to winter/spring ratio (>1.0).
  • Female (<6 months) and male patients (≥5 years) have high risk for KD-related CAAs.
Estimated Prevalence of Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome, Chronic Enteropathy Associated With SLCO2A1 Gene, and Intestinal Behçet’s Disease in Japan in 2017: A Nationwide Survey
  • Cronkhite–Canada syndrome (CCS), chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 gene (CEAS), and intestinal Behçet’s disease (BD) are rare intractable intestinal disorders.
  • We conducted the first nationwide survey of these three diseases to estimate the prevalence of patients in Japan.
  • The estimated prevalence rates per 1,000,000 population of patients with CCS, CEAS, and intestinal BD were 3.7, 3.1, and 24.8, respectively, and found to be higher than those previously reported.
Statistical Data
Excess mortality from suicide during the early COVID-19 pandemic period in Japan: a time-series modeling before the pandemic
  • Excess mortality from suicide was discussed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.
  • Excess mortality during the pandemic period was estimated using a time series model based on the number of suicides before the pandemic.
  • No significant excess mortality was observed through the early pandemic period; instead, a downward trend in suicides for both sexes was visible.
  • Our results suggest that various changes in the early period of the COVID-19 pandemic induced a decrease in suicides in Japan.

Volume 31, Issue 1 (January 2021)

Impact of PSCA Polymorphisms on the Risk of Duodenal Ulcer
  • We evaluated the association between PSCA polymorphisms and risk of duodenal/gastric ulcer and its interaction with environmental factors in a Japanese population.
  • Our study confirms an association between the PSCA rs2294008 C-allele and risk of duodenal ulcer in a large Japanese population.
  • This association was independent of age, sex, study site, smoking habit, drinking habit, and H. pylori status.
Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study
  • This is a prospective cohort study examine the sex-specific dose-response association between alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer among Japanese men and women.
  • We also evaluated the association between alcohol consumption and the site-specific risk of gastric cancer.
  • This study also discussed the differences from previous studies in Japan.
  • The present study suggested that alcohol consumption increases the risk of gastric cancer among Japanese men, regardless of anatomical sub-site of the cancer.
Infant Mortality Rates for Farming and Unemployed Households in the Japanese Prefectures: An Ecological Time Trend Analysis, 1999–2017
  • Compared to the infant mortality rate of the most privileged occupation type (type II regular worker), overall IMRs during the 1999-2017 period nearly doubled (1.96) among farming households and increased 6.5 times among unemployed households.
  • Inequality in IMRs across household occupations increased during the period of 1999-2017.
  • Inequality tended to be lower in the prefectures where population density was low, or farm density was high.
Hospital Surgical Volume and 3-Year Mortality in Severe Prognosis Cancers: A Population-Based Study Using Cancer Registry Data
  • Three-year mortality was significantly higher at low-volume hospitals (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.5-1.9) than high-volume for esophageal, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancers.
  • Moreover, mortality was significantly higher at middle-volume hospitals showing adjusted hazard ratio of 1.3-1.4 than high-volume for these cancers.
  • In particular localized pancreatic cancer, the impact of hospital surgical volume on 3-year mortality was strong (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.66).
Study Profile
Study Profile of the Tohoku Medical Megabank Community-Based Cohort Study
  • After the Great East Japan Earthquake, TMM CommCohort Study was established and 87,866 residents agreed to be enrolled.
  • Mainly two recruit methods were applied, i.e., health check-up based and assessment center based recruit.
  • The age-adjusted rates of current smoking and higher degrees of psychological distress were greater among residents living in coastal rather than among those in the inland areas.
Study Profile
Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty (A-CHILD) Study: Research Protocol and Profiles of Participants
  • Describing the purpose and design of the Adachi Child Health Impact and Living Difficulty (A-CHILD) study and the baseline profiles of participants.
  • A-CHILD study has been conducted since 2015 to clarify the associations between socioeconomic factors and child health.
  • The number of households in “living difficulties”, such as low household income or material deprivation, stood at 1,047 (24.5%).
  • This longitudinal study will continue to contribute important information for the development of policies to tackle the issue of child poverty.