Journal of Epidemiology


Guide for Authors

Updated: July 1st, 2023

New submission from July 1st, 2023:
Guide for Authors

Previous version is here(as of January 15th, 2023).









Types of article

1. Original Articles

Articles are full-length reports of original research.

  • Maximum length: 3500 words.
  • Articles should include a structured abstract containing Background,Methods, Results, and Conclusions (maximum length: 250 words), followed by sections titled Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgement and Data Availability.
  • Figure legends should explain what is represented in the figure rather than repeating results, methods, and conclusions.
    • Methods sections containing detailed, widely available protocols may be partly limited to online publication, at the Editor’s discretion.
2. Short Communications

Short Communications are concise reports of preliminary findings, or epidemiological studies with narrowly focused or limited findings.

  • Maximum length: 2000 words.
  • Manuscript style (excluding word length) should conform to the requirements for original articles.
3. Reviews

Review articles are summaries of recent insights into specific research areas within the scope of the Journal of Epidemiology. The key aims of reviews are to provide systematic and substantial coverage of established topics, evaluations of progress in specified areas, and critical assessments of emerging studies.

  • Maximum length: 5000 words.
  • Abstracts can be either structured or unstructured (maximum length: 250 words).
4. Statistical Data

Reports based on statistical data from public surveillance, such as information on mortality, morbidity, and disease surveillance systems.

  • Maximum length: 2000 words.
  • Manuscript style (excluding word length) should conform to the requirements for original articles.
5. Study Profiles

Study profiles are descriptions of study designs or overviews of potentially influential epidemiological studies.

  • Maximum length: 3500 words.
  • Manuscripts should be organized with sections titled Purpose, Main features, Participants, Outcomes and Follow-Up, Measurement, Baseline Characteristics, Strengths and Limitations, Data Availability, and Acknowledgements.
  • Updated versions of a previously published profile are also possible (indicate “Update” in title)
  • Abstracts can be either structured or unstructured (maximum length: 250 words).
6. Letters to the Editor

Opinions regarding any matter related to epidemiology.

  • Maximum length: 600 words.


Ethics in Publishing

The Journal of Epidemiology aims to ensure the scientific integrity of its scientific journal publications. The journal follows the publication guidelines set forth by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) ( Authors should refrain from misrepresenting research results or methods which could damage trust in the journal and scientific endeavors in general. If any scientific misconduct such as falsification or fabrication of data is suspected, it will be dealt with in accordance with the COPE guidelines. No data, text, or theories by others should be presented as if they were the author’s own. To verify originality (check for “plagiarism”), your article may be checked using the originality detection service Similarity Check ( For more information on publication ethics and ethical guidelines for journal publication, please visit the COPE website above. 

Policy on funding by tobacco companies

Journal of Epidemiology will not consider research or manuscripts that have been supported either directly or indirectly by tobacco companies.

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of human subjects, the authors should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans,; and with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, The manuscript should include a statement that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Conflicts of Interest

Authors must state all sources of funding and any other financial and personal relationships that could potentially bias their work in the manuscript. If any author has involvements that might raise a question of bias, they are required to provide details of such involvements.
When submitting a revised manuscript, all authors must complete and upload the “ICMJE DISCLOSURE FORM” in the submission system to declare any conflicts of interest that could influence how readers interpret the work.
Failure to reveal all pertinent information could result in the article being classified as a fraudulent submission and may cause a published paper to be retracted and the authors prohibited from further submission to the Journal of Epidemiology. The corresponding author must include a section titled “Conflicts of interest” at the end of the Acknowledgments. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the disclosures will be published in the Journal as they appear in the Acknowledgments section of the manuscript. If the authors have no conflicts of interest to declare, they should declare this with an explicit statement, such as “The authors declare they have no conflict of interest with respect to this research study and paper.”

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out.


Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article. All authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure. Journal of Epidemiology adopts the CRediT taxonomy to define author contributions. Each author’s contributor roles and degree of contribution must be provided via the online submission system. Please consult the details of CRediT at


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or critically revising it for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. They should also agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved. These definitions of authorship are based on those of the ICMJE (

Use of artificial intelligence (AI)

AI or AI-assisted tools cannot be credited as an author. The use of AI or AI-assisted tools in formal research design or research methods should be described in the Material and methods section. The use of generative AI technologies to improve the readability and language of the manuscript should be described in the Acknowledgements section. This declaration does not apply to the use of basic tools for checking grammar, spelling, references, and other routine tasks involved in manuscript preparation. Authors should take full responsibility for any content in the manuscript generated by AI or AI-assisted tools.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions, and releases must be obtained when authors wish to include case details or other personal information or images of patients or any other individuals in the Journal of Epidemiology. Written consent must be retained by the authors. Copies of the consent or evidence that consent has been obtained must be provided to the Journal’s editorial office on request. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of an article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

If a study is exempted from ethics committee approval or informed consent, the authors should document the reasons for the exemption in detail.

Changes to authorship

Authors are expected to carefully consider the list and order of authors before submitting their manuscript. The list of authors at the time of the original submission should be definitive. Any addition, deletion or rearrangement of author names in the authorship list should be made only before the manuscript has been accepted, and only if approved by the Journal’s Editor-in-Chief. When requesting such a change, the corresponding author must provide the Editor-in-Chief with the following: (a) the reason for the change in the author list; and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, letter) from all authors that they agree with the requested addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of the addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Only in exceptional circumstances will the Editor consider the addition, deletion or rearrangement of authors after the manuscript has been accepted. While the Editor considers the request, publication of the manuscript will be suspended. If the manuscript has already been published in an online issue, any request approved by the Editor will result in a corrigendum.

Reporting guidelines

The Journal of Epidemiology encourages authors to conform with the following reporting guidelines for authors.
STROBE Statement: reporting observational studies
CONSORT Statement: reporting the results of randomized controlled trials.
PRISMA Statement: reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized trials.

Registration of clinical trials

Consistent with the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE,,registration of clinical trials in a public trials registry is required for publication in this journal. Trials must be registered at or before the onset of patient enrolment. The clinical trial registration number should be included at the end of the abstract of the article. A clinical trial is defined as any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects of the interventions on health outcomes. Health-related interventions include any intervention used to modify a biomedical or health-related outcome (for example, drugs, surgical procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, dietary interventions, and process-of-care changes). Health outcomes include any biomedical or health-related measures obtained in patients or participants, including pharmacokinetic measures and adverse events. Registration is not required for purely observational studies, namely those in which assignment of the medical intervention is not at the discretion of the investigator.

All content published in the Journal of Epidemiology is available under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY,, meaning that anyone is free to use and reuse the content provided that the original source and authors are credited.

Please note that some use and reuse of the Journal’s content is occasionally made through copyright clearance associations, resulting in revenue. In cases where it is impossible to identify which paper the revenue is attributable to, the revenue will be received by the Japan Epidemiological Association.

If the manuscript contains copyrighted material, authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) for use of the material. The permissions obtained should be detailed in the cover letter and copies should be submitted to the JE editorial office. The authors should cite the source of copyrighted materials in the manuscript.

Role of the funding source

Authors are requested to identify any sources of financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article. They should briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in the design of the study; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open access

Journal of Epidemiology is an open access journal: all articles will be immediately and permanently free for anyone to read and download. To provide this open access, the journal does not impose any extra charge beyond the publication fee. Permitted third party (re)use is defined by the Creative Commons user licenses described above.


Regulations concerning Membership have recently changed. Becoming a member of the JEA is no longer mandatory, even for submissions from Japan. However, please note that publication fees differ depending on membership status.

Publication Fee

This journal does not charge submission fees.
The publication fees for work accepted by this journal are 70,000 JPY per article for Japan Epidemiological Association members and 180,000 JPY per article for non-members for papers of 7 published pages or less. To qualify for the member discount, both the first author and corresponding author must be JEA members at the time of submission. For papers of 8 published pages or more, both members and non-members alike will be charged a further 10,000 JPY for each additional page exceeding 7 pages.
Publication of Letters to the Editor will cost 10,000 JPY per page regardless of membership status. There are no charges for responses to Letters to the Editor.
Publication of Erratum will cost 10,000 JPY per page for members and non-members alike. The cost of publishing errata caused solely by the journal/publisher will be covered by the journal.
The publication fee will be waived if the first and corresponding authors can document that they are resident nationals of a country having a low-income economy, classified by the World Bank.
The publication fee includes taxes. (see for more details.)
Publication fees for supplement issues will be determined separately.


The Journal’s online submission system guides authors stepwise through the process of entering article details and uploading files. The system converts the article files into a single PDF file for use in the peer-review process. Files must be editable to allow typesetting for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor-in-Chief’s decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Peer review

This journal operates a single-blind review process (i.e. reviewers’ identities are not disclosed to authors). All contributions are initially assessed by the Editor-in-Chief for suitability for the journal. Papers deemed suitable are then sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding the acceptance or rejection of an article. The Editor’s decision is final.


Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the original format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Layout of the text should be kept as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing of the article. In particular, do not use the word processor’s options to justify text or hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table, and do not use a grid for each row. If no grid is used, align columns using tabs, not spaces.
Note that source files of figures, tables, and text graphics are required even if figures are embedded in the text. See also the section on electronic artwork.
Insert continuous line numbers from the Abstract to the Acknowledgments (do not use line numbers for references or graphics).
To avoid unnecessary errors, always check the manuscript using the ‘spell-check’ and ‘grammar-check’ functions of your word processor before submission.

Cover letter for new submissions

All submissions must be accompanied by a cover letter, which should include the following:
a) The name of the journal, Journal of Epidemiology;
b) The title of the paper;
c) The article’s principal findings and their significance for the field of epidemiology;
d) A statement indicating that all authors have approved the manuscript and that the work has not been published in or submitted to any other journal.
Submissions are not approved for review until all the above information has been received.

Essential title page information

- Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
- Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
- Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, as well as post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author. We designate only one corresponding author per article. Any further contribution details (e.g. equal contribution) must be included in the Acknowledgements section.
- Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a ‘Present address’ (or ‘Permanent address’) may be indicated as a footnote to that author’s name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.
- Short Title (Running Title). Please restrict running titles to a maximum of 8 words.
- Numbers of Tables, Figures, and Supplementary materials.


ORCID, or Open Researcher and Contributor ID, is a 16-digit code (e.g. 0000-0003-2460-7854) that uniquely identifies academic authors.
First authors are required to link their profile on the Journal of Epidemiology submission site with their ORCID for inclusion in the published paper.
Linking your ORCID with your account is simple:

  1. After logging in, go to your user name at the top of the login screen and select ‘Email/Name’ from the drop-down menu.
  2. From the options, select either register for an ORCID (if you don’t already have one) or associate your account with your existing ORCID via the links.

ORCID registration is also strongly recommended for corresponding authors.
For details, see


A structured abstract should provide the context or background for the research and should state its purpose, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or observational and analytical methods), main findings (giving specific effect sizes and their statistical significance, if possible), and principal conclusions. Headings should be Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusion. The abstract should emphasize new and important aspects of the study or observations.
Original Articles, Short Communications, and Statistical Data should include a structured abstract of no more than 250 words. Unstructured abstracts are permitted for Review articles and Study Profiles.


Immediately after the abstract, provide three to five keywords, using either British or American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, ‘and’, ‘of’). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be used. Keywords are used for indexing purposes.


State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or summary of the results.

Material and methods

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods which have already been published elsewhere should be indicated by a reference; only relevant modifications should be described. The sources of special reagents or instrumentation used in the study should be provided, along with the name and location of the manufacturer.
This section should also include the methods used for statistical analysis.


Results should be clear and concise.
Authors are encouraged to specify exact p-values.
Means, standard deviations, and standard errors: To report means, standard deviations, and standard errors, use the format “mean (SD)” or “mean (SE).” Do not use “±.”
Confidence intervals: In the text, basically express confidence intervals using a comma, and separate values with a hyphen, e.g. “95% CI, 1.20-1.90”. If either of the values is negative, the two values should be separated by the word “to,” e.g. “−2.3 to −1.4,” “−1.30 to 1.04".
Equations can appear within the text or be displayed on a separate line. Whenever possible, mathematical equations should be written on a single line, e.g. a/(a + b) and exp(x). With the proper use of braces, brackets, parentheses, and exponents, even complicated expressions can be put into this form. However, any mathematical expression that contains a character taller than a line of type should be displayed and numbered as an equation. When referring to an equation in the text, use e.g. “equation 6” or “expression 6.” When preparing mathematical equations, use italic type for variables and single letters, bold type for vectors and matrices, and regular type for short words such as “exp” or “lim” and Greek letters.
Insert a space before and after any mathematical sign or symbol, including those appearing within parentheses.
For multiplication, use a times sign rather than an asterisk or centered dot. For ±, <, and >, do not use an underline, as the underline may be lost during software conversion, thereby changing the meaning of the data.
Regression analyses: When presenting results of regression analyses, regression coefficients should usually be converted into more generally meaningful terms (e.g. relative odds instead of beta coefficients). Note that, because regression coefficients are unit-dependent for continuous variables and category-dependent for discrete or ordinal variables, the Journal requires statements specifying the units or categories, namely as parenthetical statements in the text or in table footnotes or figure legends.
Odds ratio versus relative risk: When reporting the results of a case-control study or a cross-sectional study, where the parameter of interest is an odds ratio, the authors should refer to that parameter as an odds ratio, not as a relative risk.


This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. This section should include a concluding statement or paragraph. A combined Results and Discussion section may be appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references; do not include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g. providing language help, writing assistance or proofreading the article, etc.). As indicated in 'Conflicts of interest' above, authors must disclose their conflicts of interest in this section.

Data availability

Authors must state the status of data availability in their manuscript. The following are examples of suitable descriptions.

  • Data are available in a repository (with a DOI).
  • Data are available in a repository (with a unique identifier other than a DOI).
  • All data are incorporated into the article and its online supplementary material.
  • Data available on request from authors.
  • Data derived from a source in the public domain (with link).
  • There are no new data associated with this article.
  • Data cannot be shared for privacy or ethical reasons.

If none of the above examples apply, the actual situation should be described.


Information that is explanatory and essential in nature can be reported in an Appendix. If the author list is longer than the space in the author byline area of the first page of the published paper, those authors whose names do not fit will be listed in an Appendix. This list will include collaborators in multicenter trials attributed to corporate or multiple authors, providing that the investigators qualify as authors according to one of the criteria specified in ‘Authorship’ above.
Additional non-essential or technical material should be provided as supplementary materials for online publication only.

Formatting of Funding Sources

List funding sources in this standard way to facilitate compliance with funders’ requirements: Funding: This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant numbers xxxx, yyyy]; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, WA [grant number zzzz]; and the United States Institutes of Peace [grant number aaaa].
It is not necessary to include detailed descriptions of the program or type of grant and award. When funding is from a block grant or other resources available to a university, college, or other research institution, submit the name of the institute or organization that provided the funding.
If the research has not received any funding, please include the following sentence: This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.


Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. They should be submitted in a separate editable file during online submission. Please use ‘Highlights’ in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 150 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). You can view example Highlights on our information site (


Image manipulation

While it is accepted that authors sometimes need to manipulate images for clarity, manipulation for purposes of deception or fraud will be viewed as scientific misconduct and will be dealt with accordingly (see above “Ethics in publishing”). For graphical images, this journal applies the following policy: no specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Adjustments of brightness, contrast, or color balance are acceptable as long as they do not obscure or eliminate any information present in the original. Nonlinear adjustments (e.g. changes to gamma settings) must be disclosed in the figure legend.

Electronic artwork
General points
  • Make sure to use uniform lettering and sizing in original artwork.
  • Embed the fonts used if the application provides that option.
  • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol; or fonts that appear similar to these.
  • All figures should be numbered using Arabic numerals
  • Figures should be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order
  • Use a logical naming convention for artwork files.
  • Provide captions to illustrations in a separate Figure legends section.
  • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version; submit each illustration as a separate file

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel), submit it ‘as is’ in its original document format.
For electronic artwork produced in other (non-Microsoft Office) applications, finalize the file using the ‘Save as’ or convert function into one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings; embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones); keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black and white pixels) line drawings; keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped to line/half-tone (color or grayscale); keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:

  • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g. GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
  • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
  • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Please submit tables as editable text and not as images. Tables can be placed on separate page(s) at the end of the manuscript. All tables should be numbered using Arabic numerals. Tables should be cited in the text in consecutive numerical order. Place any table notes below the table body. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data they present do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article. Avoid using vertical rules.

Please confirm:

  • Define all table abbreviations in alphabetical order immediately below the table
  • Use superscript letters (a to z) for footnotes, which should follow the abbreviation list
  • Specify units of measure (including variability of measurement, if reported)
  • Round values appropriately

Reference style

Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. For further detail and examples, refer to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, 11th Edition, ISBN 978-0-19-024655-6(see
List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
Reference to a journal publication:

  1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51-59.
    Reference to a book:
  2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
  3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281-304.
    Reference to a website:
  4. Cancer Research UK. Cancer statistics reports for the UK.; 2020 Accessed 14.07.2020.

Supplementary Material

Material that is not essential for inclusion in the main text of the manuscript but would benefit the reader can be submitted as supplementary materials. Supplementary materials are published online only, linked to the online manuscript. Supplementary materials might include more detailed methods, additional results, tables, figures, and other items. Supplementary materials should be numbered using Arabic numerals and cited in the main text in consecutive order.
Please submit supplementary materials together with the manuscript and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. Changes to supplementary data can be made during any stage of the submission and review process by providing an updated file, without annotation to indicate any corrections made to the previous version.
Please note that supplementary materials are published online exactly as they are submitted; there is no typesetting involved. Ensure that the ‘Track Changes’ option in Microsoft Office files has been switched off and all tracked changes have been dismissed; failure to do so will result in any tracked changes remaining in the submitted files appearing in the published supplementary file(s).

Required Files

These items should be uploaded via ScholarOne Manuscripts in the following order:

  1. Highlights (required)
  2. Main document (required)
  3. Tables, Figures
  4. Supplementary files



Publication Fee Agreement Form

The corresponding author must sign the Publication Fee Agreement Form which will be attached to the acceptance letter. We will not publish your manuscript online until we have confirmed your payment.

Advance publication as “Accepted version” (option)

Authors have the option of choosing advance publication as an “Accepted version.” As soon as your payment is confirmed, processing of your manuscript for advance publication as an “Accepted version” begins. Note that advance publication papers are published online before passing through the copyediting, typesetting, pagination and proofreading process.
Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail containing the PDF file to be used for advance publication as an “Accepted version” from the editorial office. It is important for authors to make any corrections or comments on this PDF to us, or approve it, in a single communication only. Only corrections for minor errors, such as layout and spelling errors, will be considered at this stage, so authors should check the PDF file carefully before replying. The editorial office will then finalize the file as the “Accepted version” for release. If you choose advance publication as an “Accepted version,” a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated at this stage.
Please note that the “Accepted version” will be updated at the time the copyedited and typeset version is prepared.

Copyediting, Typesetting and Proofreading

Accepted manuscripts, including those set for advance publication as an “Accepted version,” will be copyedited after acceptance. The editorial office may contact authors if confirmation of any copyediting changes is required. Copyedited manuscripts are then sent for typesetting. When this is completed, the corresponding author will receive an e-mail about the proofs from the editorial office. This proof should be used to check the typesetting and editing, and the completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures only. At this stage, significant changes to articles accepted for publication will only be considered with permission from the Editor-in-Chief. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in a single communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Please note that while the editing office does everything possible to ensure that papers are published quickly and accurately, proofreading is solely the authors’ responsibility.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alphanumeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. Once assigned, the DOI never changes. It is therefore an ideal medium for citing documents, particularly ‘Articles in press,’ because these have yet to receive their full bibliographic information.
Here is an example of a correctly cited DOI (in URL format):
When a DOI is used to create links to documents on the web, the DOI is guaranteed to never change.


Offprints are supplied at a rate based on the number of pages in the printed article and the number of offprints ordered. An order form will be sent to the corresponding author after you submit the proof correction. The order should be returned to the Editorial Office.



Authors can track submitted articles at, or contact the journal directly at the Editorial Office of the Journal of Epidemiology (email: