Journal of Epidemiology

Volume 29, Issue 1 (January 2019)

1) Review Article
Contribution of Diabetes to the Incidence and Prevalence of Comorbid Conditions (Cancer, Periodontal Disease, Fracture, Impaired Cognitive Function, and Depression): A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies in Japanese Populations
● We reviewed literatures about the link between diabetes and complications in Japan.
● We focused on cancer, periodontitis, fracture, dementia, and depression.
● There was scant evidence about the effect of diabetes on these conditions in Japan.
● The needs for future studies were suggested.

2) Changes in Smoking Status and Mortality From All Causes and Lung Cancer: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Population-based Study in Japan
● The analysis considered the longitudinal changes of smoking status during follow-up.
● The risk of mortality for former smokers become higher by using updated information.
● The risk of mortality for ill new quitters is higher than did continuous smokers.

3) Birth Anomalies in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins: Results From the California Twin Registry
● The first US twin study explored heritable/parental factors in 9 birth anomalies.
● Prevalence of birth anomalies in California twins declined slightly from 1957-1982.
● Excess concordance comparing MZ to DZ were found for clubfoot and strabismus.
● Parental smoking increased the risk of spina bifida and strabismus.

4) Number of Teeth, Oral Self-care, Eating Speed, and Metabolic Syndrome in an Aged Japanese Population
● Elderly people have <20 teeth are at high risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS).
● Elderly people who are eating fast are at high risk of MetS.
● Elderly men using secondary oral hygiene products daily are at low risk of MetS.
● Combination of having few teeth and eating fast may enhance the risk of MetS.

5) Short communication
Subjective Household Economic Status and Obesity in Toddlers: A Cross-Sectional Study of Daycare Centers in Japan
● A new device is available for self-monitoring urinary Na/K ratio.
● Our trial comparted urinary Na/K ratio between users of the device and non-users.
● Those who used the device were likely to have larger reduction in urinary Na/K ratio.
● With an education for improving dietary habit, there may be a much larger reduction.