Journal of Epidemiology

Volume 29, Issue 3 (March 2019)

1) Special Article
The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS): A Long-Term Epidemiological Study for Lifestyle-Related Disease Among Japanese Men and Women Living in Communities
● The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS) is an ongoing community-based dynamic cohort study of lifestyle-related disease, involving approximately 12,000 adults from 5 communities of Japan.
● The most notable features of this half century-long study is its aim to develop community-based prevention programs through the identification of profiles and underlying factors for cardiovascular disease.

2) Social Capital and Dietary Intakes Following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami
● Low social capital was associated with poor dietary intake among women.
● Poor dietary intake was found in divorced, widowed, and, unmarried survivors.
● An age <65 years was associated with poor dietary intake.
● Residents of Rikuzentakata demonstrated relatively good dietary intake.

3) Prevalence and Correlates of Dyslipidemia Among Men and Women in Palau: Findings of the Palau STEPS Survey 2011–2013
● This is the first population-based survey in Palau for dyslipidemia which is a major risk factor of NCDs.
● We examined lipid profiles in Palau via the Palau National STEPS conducted between 2011 and 2013.
● Lower proportion of hypercholesterolemia was shown in Palauan population thought high proportions of high BMI value and obesity.
● Palauan men showed a lower mean value of cholesterol than non-Palauan men; and Palauan women showed a higher mean value of triglycerides than non-Palauan women.
● The blood lipids varied by age, ethnicity and living area.

4) The Prospective Association Between Plasma Concentrations of Cellular Growth Factors and Risk of Heart Failure Mortality in Japanese Population
● Limited evidence on relation of serum insulin-like growth factors and heart failure.
● We ran a nested case-control study following subjects aged 40-79 years for 9 years.
● Serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-BP3 and TGF-β1 measured in 88 cases and 88 controls.
● SD increment of serum IGF-II associated with almost half risk reduction of heart failure.

5) Impact of Comorbidities on Survival in Gastric, Colorectal, and Lung Cancer Patients
● We examined the impact of comorbidities on overall survival in cancer patients.
● Cox proportional hazards models were developed to adjust for other covariates.
● The presence of comorbidities was associated with poorer survival.
● Comorbidities are an independent negative prognostic factor in cancer patients.

6) Effects of Omitting Non-confounding Predictors From General Relative-Risk Models for Binary Outcomes
● We assessed effects of omitting non-confounding variables from general relative-risk models for binary outcomes.
● Bias and precision were qualitatively similar to those with logistic regression.
● Bias and precision somewhat exceeded those with logistic regression in relation to the size of the actual relative risk.
● General relative-risk models can be used without much added concern over omitted variables.

Volume 29, Issue 2 (February 2019)

1) Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Low-Income Adults in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur
● Physical activity (PA) could be a cost-effective method to improve health and QoL.
● One out of five low income urban residents in Malaysia were physically inactive.
● Individuals who attained recommended PA level had better scores of QoL.
● It is a promising possibility to use PA intervention to improve mental health.

2) Association of Low Family Income With Lung Function Among Children and Adolescents: Results of the J-SHINE Study
● A population-based sample of 1224 children in and around Tokyo was analyzed.
● Children in low-income families showed significantly lower lung function.
● Early intervention for lung function is necessary among children living in poverty.

3) Physical Activity Earlier in Life Is Inversely Associated With Insulin Resistance Among Adults in Japan
● Continued physical activity earlier in life had an inversive association on the insulin resistance after middle age.
● This association for insulin resistance was observed even if the influence of BMI is excluded.
● All results had significant impact on insulin resistance among both men and women.

4) Cedar Pollinosis and Mortality: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study in Japan
● This cohort study examined the association of cedar pollinosis with mortality.
● We used a validated symptom-based questionnaire on cedar pollinosis.
● Cedar pollinosis was inversely associated with all-cause and respiratory mortality.
● No association was found between cedar pollinosis and death from cancer or CVD.

5) Exploring 2.5-Year Trajectories of Functional Decline in Older Adults by Applying a Growth Mixture Model and Frequency of Outings as a Predictor: A 2010–2013 JAGES Longitudinal Study
● Three distinct trajectories of functional decline were identified in older Japanese men and women.
● The majority of older Japanese showed a trajectory of slow functional decline from the first occurrence.
● Men with fewer outings at baseline were more likely to belong to persistently disabled trajectory rather than slowly declining trajectory.

6) Study Profile
A Community-Wide Intervention Trial for Preventing and Reducing Frailty Among Older Adults Living in Metropolitan Areas: Design and Baseline Survey for a Study Integrating Participatory Action Research With a Cluster Trial
● A community-wide intervention to postpone frailty was launched in Ota City, Tokyo.
● Baseline survey of 15,500 residents was conducted (76.9% response rate).
● Interventions based on the results are conducted as participatory action research.
● A community-wide frailty prevention strategy will be developed for metropolises.

Volume 29, Issue 1 (January 2019)

1) Review Article
Contribution of Diabetes to the Incidence and Prevalence of Comorbid Conditions (Cancer, Periodontal Disease, Fracture, Impaired Cognitive Function, and Depression): A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies in Japanese Populations
● We reviewed literatures about the link between diabetes and complications in Japan.
● We focused on cancer, periodontitis, fracture, dementia, and depression.
● There was scant evidence about the effect of diabetes on these conditions in Japan.
● The needs for future studies were suggested.

2) Changes in Smoking Status and Mortality From All Causes and Lung Cancer: A Longitudinal Analysis of a Population-based Study in Japan
● The analysis considered the longitudinal changes of smoking status during follow-up.
● The risk of mortality for former smokers become higher by using updated information.
● The risk of mortality for ill new quitters is higher than did continuous smokers.

3) Birth Anomalies in Monozygotic and Dizygotic Twins: Results From the California Twin Registry
● The first US twin study explored heritable/parental factors in 9 birth anomalies.
● Prevalence of birth anomalies in California twins declined slightly from 1957-1982.
● Excess concordance comparing MZ to DZ were found for clubfoot and strabismus.
● Parental smoking increased the risk of spina bifida and strabismus.

4) Number of Teeth, Oral Self-care, Eating Speed, and Metabolic Syndrome in an Aged Japanese Population
● Elderly people have <20 teeth are at high risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS).
● Elderly people who are eating fast are at high risk of MetS.
● Elderly men using secondary oral hygiene products daily are at low risk of MetS.
● Combination of having few teeth and eating fast may enhance the risk of MetS.

5) Short communication
Subjective Household Economic Status and Obesity in Toddlers: A Cross-Sectional Study of Daycare Centers in Japan
● A new device is available for self-monitoring urinary Na/K ratio.
● Our trial comparted urinary Na/K ratio between users of the device and non-users.
● Those who used the device were likely to have larger reduction in urinary Na/K ratio.
● With an education for improving dietary habit, there may be a much larger reduction.