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Journal of Epidemiology

Volume 27, Issue 12 (December 2017)

Volume 27, Issue 11 (November 2017)

Development of the Japanese version of the Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire and its simplified versions, and evaluation of their reliability, validity, and reproducibility
  • We translated the CNAQ and SNAQ into Japanese (CNAQ-J and SNAQ-J).
  • The CNAQ-J was found to be constructed of one factor (appetite).
  • We developed the SNAQ-JE according to an exploratory factor analysis.
  • The CNAQ-J and SNAQ-JE showed acceptable reliability, reproducibility, and validity.
  • The CNAQ-J and SNAQ-JE may be applied to assess Japanese elderly's appetite.

Volume 27, Issue 10 (October 2017)

Review Article
Epidemiology of ebolavirus disease (EVD) and occupational EVD in health care workers in Sub-Saharan Africa: Need for strengthened public health preparedness
  • Recent EVD outbreaks in Africa (as of September 2015) claimed 12,933 lives.
  • Health care workers (HCW) were severely impacted.
  • We observed 890 cases of occupational EVD in HCW and a case fatality rate of 57%.
  • Use of protective and safety-engineered medical devices should be expanded.
  • Periodic training and improving EVD risk communication would enhance preparedness.
Concordance among methods of nutritional assessment in patients included on the waiting list for liver transplantation
  • Malnutrition prevalence in patients waiting for a liver transplant is high.
  • The prevalence of malnutrition varied depending on the method of evaluation.
  • The overall agreement among the malnutrition assessment methods was low.
  • PNI-O was the method of assessment malnutrition with the highest overall agreement.
  • NRI obtained the highest positive likelihood ratio for the diagnosis of malnutrition.
Pre-pregnancy BMI-specific optimal gestational weight gain for women in Japan
  • We estimated gestational weight gain that optimizes pregnancy outcomes in Japanese.
  • Optimal gain was 12.2 kg/40 weeks for pre-pregnancy BMI 17.0–18.4 kg/m2.
  • Optimal gain was 4.3 kg/40 weeks for pre-pregnancy BMI 25.0–27.4 kg/m2.
  • Current national guidelines are too low for women with pre-pregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2.
  • BMI > 23 kg/m2 should be defined as overweight if applying IOM recommendations.

Volume 27, Issue 9 (September 2017)

Gender disparity in the associations of overweight/obesity with occupational activity, transport to/from work, leisure-time physical activity, and leisure-time spent sitting in working adults: A cross-sectional study
  • Physical activity and sitting with overweight/obesity in employees were studied.
  • Heavy occupational activity had a lower overweight/obesity risk.
  • Active LTPA and cycling to work were associated with lower overweight/obesity risk.
  • Reducing leisure sitting time can reduce the risk of abdominal overweight/obesity.
  • The significant results were observed in male employees but not in females.
Online version of the self-administered food frequency questionnaire for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) protocol: Relative validity, usability, and comparison with a printed questionnaire
  • We examined validity of intakes using web-FFQ compared with those for the print-FFQ.
  • Moderate validities were shown for many estimates based on the web-FFQ.
  • These CCs (with 12-day food record) were closely similar to those of the print-FFQ.
  • Good concordance between individual rankings were obtained with the two FFQs.
  • Mixing of these FFQs for diet survey in epidemiological studies appears acceptable.

Volume 27, Issue 8 (August 2017)

Review Article
Prevalence of frailty in Japan: A systematic review and meta-analysis
  • Frailty is an important priority in Japan, where the population is aging rapidly.
  • Japan is a good example of a rapidly aging society for frailty research.
  • Five studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis study.
  • Pooled prevalence of frailty in Japanese in the community aged >65 years is 7.4%.
Risk of stroke and heart failure attributable to atrial fibrillation in middle-aged and elderly people: Results from a five-year prospective cohort study of Japanese community dwellers
  • Incidence rates for stroke and HF were estimated in Japanese community dwellers.
  • Subjects were divided into AF and non-AF groups separately by age (40–69 and ≥70).
  • AF increased the risk of stroke by the same magnitude as in Western populations.
  • AF increased the risk of HF more than that in Western populations.
  • The absolute risk differences of outcomes were larger in the elderly individuals.
Epidemiology of overdose episodes from the period prior to hospitalization for drug poisoning until discharge in Japan: An exploratory descriptive study using a nationwide claims database
  • Benzodiazepines were prescribed to ≥59% of overdose patients aged ≥19 years.
  • Cardiovascular drugs were frequently ingested among overdose patients aged ≥75 years.
  • The proportions of patients with recent psychiatric treatments decreased with age.
  • Overdose prevention should be optimized according to the age-related differences.
Cross-level interaction between individual socioeconomic status and regional deprivation on overall survival after onset of ischemic stroke: National health insurance cohort sample data from 2002 to 2013
  • Regional socioeconomic status (SES) may differently affect mortality by income.
  • Impact of area SES on morality among cerebrovascular patients was evaluated.
  • Among middle-income patients, poor SES area is associated with poor mortality.
  • Poor SES area is associated with better mortality among low-income patients.

Volume 27, Issue 7 (July 2017)

Comparison of weighed food record procedures for the reference methods in two validation studies of food frequency questionnaires
  • The procedures of weighed food records in two independent studies were compared.
  • General procedures of the dietary records were the mostly same for both studies.
  • Differences were found in the setting of survey days and the survey sheet.
  • Setting of survey days did not influence the intra- and inter-individual variation.
  • Differences in survey sheets did not influence the portion sizes.
Self-perception of weight status and its association with weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese children in Guangzhou
  • Over one third of children misperceived their weight status in Guangzhou, China.
  • Underestimation of body weight was much more prevalent than overestimation.
  • Underestimation was common in younger children, girls, and those with obese parents.
  • Children perceived as underweight/overweight had a higher intention to change weight.
  • Children perceived as normal weight behaved more healthily on certain behaviors.

Volume 27, Issue 6 (June 2017)

Prevalence of abdominal obesity among Chinese adults in 2011
  • In 2011, the mean waist circumference in China was 85.9 cm (men) and 80.7 cm (women).
  • In 2011, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was 35.3% in men and 51.7% in women.
  • The prevalence in China was lower than in Japan and the United States.
Living status and frequency of eating out-of-home foods in relation to nutritional adequacy in 4,017 Japanese female dietetic students aged 18–20 years: A multicenter cross-sectional study
  • Young women living with their family had more nutrients not meeting dietary goals.
  • Eating out was associated with not meeting dietary goals in those living with family.
  • Young women living alone had more inadequate intakes of nutrients.
  • Eating out-of-home did not affect nutritional adequacy in those living alone.

Volume 27, Issue 5 (May 2017)

Personal status of general health checkups and medical expenditure: A large-scale community-based retrospective cohort study
  • To clarify the association between General Health Checkups and Medical Expenditures.
  • A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a middle-aged Japanese population.
  • Non-, low-, and high-frequency utilizers were divided based on the 6-year GHCs.
  • 3-year MEs were analyzed using Tweedie distribution for a generalized linear model.
  • Outpatient MEs rise when GHCs are frequent, but inpatient and total MEs are lower.
Gender differences in the associations between urinary bisphenol A and body composition among American children: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006
  • Associations between urinary BPA and body composition were examined in U.S. children.
  • Gender differences existed in the associations of BPA and body composition.
  • BPA levels were positively associated with lean body mass in boys but not in girls.
  • BPA levels were positively associated with fat mass in girls but not in boys.

Volume 27, Issue 4 (April 2017)

Volume 27, Issue 3 (March 2017)

Why we should worry less about predatory publishers and more about the quality of research and training at our academic institutions
  • Predatory journals claim to be peer reviewed but actually publish all submissions.
  • Most work published in predatory journals is of low quality.
  • Researchers should be trained to identify predatory and legitimate journals.
  • The growth of predatory journals reflects problems with research institutions.
  • Efforts should be made to improve research quality and training.

Volume 27, Issue 3, Supplement (March 2017)

BioBank Japan project: Epidemiological study
  • For precision medicine, genetic, clinical and environmental information is crucial.
  • Biobank Japan project constructed a clinical database of 200,000 patients.
  • This supplement reported the epidemiological studies in the Biobank Japan.
Overview of BioBank Japan follow-up data in 32 diseases
  • 141,612 participants with any of 32 diseases were included in the follow-up survey.
  • Subject characteristics at enrollment for the follow-up survey were identified.
  • The relative survival analysis showed the worst prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
  • The most common cause of death in all subjects was malignant neoplasms.
Characteristics of patients with liver cancer in the BioBank Japan project
  • Liver cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide.
  • We aimed to provide an overview of patients with liver cancer.
  • Based on liver cancer histology, 91.9% had hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • The 10-year relative survival rates were 34% in men and 38% in women.
  • Future studies will help develop preventive programs for liver cancer.
Statin use and all-cause and cancer mortality: BioBank Japan cohort
  • Statin-mediated reduction of low-density lipoprotein levels reduces mortality.
  • Little is known on the effect of non-statin hyperlipidaemia medicines on mortality.
  • Statin monotherapy is safe in terms of cancer mortality.
  • Statin use may reduce colorectal cancer-related mortality.
  • Resin monotherapy was associated with the lowest mortality.
Survival of macrovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic respiratory disease, cancer and smoking in patients with type 2 diabetes: BioBank Japan cohort
  • Fatal diseases frequently accompany diabetes.
  • Data for survival of Asian patients with diabetes with comorbidities are scarce.
  • Comorbid chronic kidney disease was associated with the most fatalities.
  • Current smoking was as fatal as 10 years of ageing in diabetic patients.
  • Values of 1% HbA1c and 10 mmHg blood pressure confer 11% excess mortality risk.

Volume 27, Issue 2 (February 2017)

Review Article
A typology of four notions of confounding in epidemiology
  • Confounding depends not only on the target population but also on its four notions.
  • It would be helpful to use the total population as the target population.
  • Simple examples can be powerful tools for understanding complex causal concepts.

Volume 27, Issue 1 (January 2017)