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Hot paperは、出版されてから2年以内の論文のうち、Web of Scienceで最近2ヶ月で特に著しく引用された論文(被引用数が上位0.1%に入る論文)を対象としています。2ヵ月ごとに更新されるため、最新の科学研究動向を反映しているといえます。

March/April, 2015; September/October, 2015

Validation of Acute Myocardial Infarction Cases in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan

Ching-Lan Cheng, Cheng-Han Lee, Po-Sheng Chen, Yi-Heng Li, Swu-Jane Lin, Yea-Huei Kao Yang

Background The aim of this study was to determine the validity of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) diagnosis coding in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) by cross-comparisons of discharge diagnoses listed in the NHIRD with those in the medical records obtained from a medical center in Taiwan. Methods This was a cross-sectional study comparing records in the NHIRD and discharge notes in one medical center (DNMC) in the year 2008. Positive predictive values (PPVs) for AMI diagnoses were evaluated by reviewing the relevant clinical and laboratory data recorded in the discharge notes of the medical center. Agreement in comorbidities, cardiac procedures, and antiplatelet agent (aspirin or clopidogrel) prescriptions between the two databases was evaluated. Results We matched 341 cases of AMI hospitalizations from the two databases, and 338 cases underwent complete chart review. Of these 338 AMI cases, 297 were confirmed with clinical and lab data, which yielded a PPV of 0.88. The consistency rate for coronary intervention, stenting, and antiplatelet prescription at admission was high, yielding a PPV over 0.90. The percentage of consistency in comorbidity diagnoses was 95.9% (324/338) among matched AMI cases. Conclusions The NHIRD appears to be a valid resource for population research in cardiovascular diseases. Key words: acute myocardial infarction, NHIRD, Taiwan, validity, pharmacoepidemiology

Vol. 24 (2013) No. 6 P 500-507

Jan/Feb, 2015

Epidemiology of Esophageal Cancer in Japan and China

Yingsong Lin, Yukari Totsuka, Yutong He, Shogo Kikuchi, Youlin Qiao, Junko Ueda, Wenqiang Wei, Manami Inoue, Hideo Tanaka

Yingsong Lin (林 櫻松), Yukari Totsuka (戸塚 ゆか里), Yutong He (贺 宇彤), Shogo Kikuchi (菊地 正悟), Youlin Qiao (乔 有林), Junko Ueda (上田 純子), Wenqiang Wei (魏 文强), Manami Inoue (井上 真奈美), and Hideo Tanaka (田中 英夫)

In preparation for a collaborative multidisciplinary study of the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer, the authors reviewed the published literature to identify similarities and differences between Japan and China in esophageal cancer epidemiology. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant histologic type, while the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma remains extremely low in both countries. Numerous epidemiologic studies in both countries show that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are contributing risk factors for ESCC. There are differences, however, in many aspects of esophageal cancer between Japan and China, including cancer burden, patterns of incidence and mortality, sex ratio of mortality, risk factor profiles, and genetic variants. Overall incidence and mortality rates are higher in China than in Japan, and variation in mortality and incidence patterns is greater in China than in Japan. During the study period (1987–2000), the decline in age-adjusted mortality rates was more apparent in China than in Japan. Risk factor profiles differed between high- and low-incidence areas within China, but not in Japan. The association of smoking and drinking with ESCC risk appears to be weaker in China than in Japan. Genome-wide association studies in China showed that variants in several chromosome regions conferred increased risk, but only genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes were significantly associated with ESCC risk in Japan. A well-designed multidisciplinary epidemiologic study is needed to examine the role of diet and eating habits in ESCC risk.

食道がんの発生要因の解明を目的とした日中共同研究を実施するために、著者らは日本と中国で発表されている食道がん疫学文献をレビューした。組織型では日 中両国とも扁平上皮がんが圧倒的に多く、腺がんの頻度が非常に低い。両国で行われた多くの研究によると、喫煙と飲酒が最も重要なリスク要因であることは一 致している。しかし、がんによる負担、罹患率や死亡率、死亡の男女比、リスク要因、遺伝的感受性などの点において違いが認められる。全体に日本より中国の 食道がん罹患率及び死亡率が高く、地域による罹患率及び死亡率の差も大きい。1987年から2000年までの年齢調整死亡率の低下は、日本より中国のほう が大きかった。中国では、リスク要因は多発地域と低発地域とでは異なるが、日本では地域によるリスク要因の違いが報告されていない。中国では飲酒と喫煙と 食道がんとの関連が日本より強くない傾向がある。中国で実施されたゲノムワイド関連分析から幾つかの染色体のregionが感受性と関連すると報告しているのに対し、日本ではアルコール代謝関連遺伝子多型がリスクと有意に関連すると報告している。食事や食習慣の影響については学際的研究による検討が必要である。

Vol. 23 (2013) No. 4 P 233-242