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Highlights

Journal of Epidemiology

Volume 28, Issue 12 (December 2018)

Volume 28, Issue 11 (November 2018)

Special Article
Japanese Legacy Cohort Studies: The Hisayama Study
  • The Hisayama Study is a population-based prospective cohort study to evaluate the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases in Japanese.
  • The research topics of this study have been diversified to include cardiovascular diseases, dementia, hypertension, diabetes, kidney disease, etc.
  • This Study has provided valuable evidence of secular change in the prevalence and incidence of several lifestyle-related disease and their risk factors.
  • Research efforts in this cohort are ongoing and will provide additional data for the improvement of human health and longevity.
Determinants of High-School Dropout: A Longitudinal Study in a Deprived Area of Japan
  • Educational attainment is one of the most important social determinants of health.
  • A longitudinal study in Japan found three determinants of high school dropout.
  • Determinants at the time of junior high school students were tardy arrival, daily smoking and severe problems such as abuse.
  • These factors should be treated as warning signs of academic and behavioral problems.
Statistical Data
Geographic Access to Cancer Treatment in Japan: Results From a Combined Dataset of the Patient Survey and the Survey of Medical Institutions in 2011
  • We analyzed the GIS (geographical information system)-derived cancer patients’ travel time for hospital admission using combined dataset of the Patient Survey and the Survey of Medical Institutions in 2011.
  • Patients with stomach or colorectal cancer tended to admit near hospitals, compared with those with cervical cancer or leukemia.
  • The travel time tended to be longer for younger patients and patients living in the secondary healthcare service areas without designated cancer care hospitals.

Volume 28, Issue 10 (October 2018)

Recent Improvement in the Long-term Survival of Breast Cancer Patients by Age and Stage in Japan
  • We evaluated the recent improvement in relative survival of breast cancer patients, using large population-based data which covered 13.4% of the total Japanese population.
  • Five-and ten-year relative survival were improved by 2.8% and 2.4%, respectively, from 1993 to 2006.
  • We found that the improvement in relative survival was larger among the age 35-69 than the age 15-34 or 70-99 and among regional disease than localized or distant metastatic diseases.

Volume 28, Issue 9 (September 2018)

Review Article
Observational Evidence of the Association Between Handgrip Strength, Hand Dexterity, and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review
  • Handgrip strength associates with cognition cross-sectionally and longitudinally.
  • Hand dexterity associates with cognition cross-sectionally.
  • The longitudinal association between hand dexterity and cognition is unknown.
  • It is unclear which variable at baseline affects the other in the long-term.
  • The interaction effects of grip strength, hand dexterity and cognition is unknown.

Volume 28, Issue 8 (August 2018)

Genome Database of the Latvian Population (LGDB): Design, Goals, and Primary Results
  • The Genome Database of the Latvian Population is an open research platform.
  • National biobank in small country is essential to epidemiological research.
  • Biobank can significantly contribute to genetic testing and health care improvement.
  • It is crucial for biobank to plan and foresee biosample demand in research.
  • Financial support of biobank can be national funding, study or industrial research.

Volume 28, Issue 7 (July 2018)

Living Alone or With Others and Depressive Symptoms, and Effect Modification by Residential Social Cohesion Among Older Adults in Japan: The JAGES Longitudinal Study
  • Older adults living alone are at risk of deteriorate mental health.
  • Little longitudinal evidence on the impact of living arrangements on mental health.
  • Few studies examining the modifying effect of social cohesion on this association.
  • Living arrangements affected the risk of depressive symptoms among older adults.
  • Gender and neighborhood social cohesion level affected the identified association.
Breast Cancer Incidence Trends and Projections in Northeastern Thailand
  • By using regional cancer registry data in Khon Kaen, Thailand, age standardized rates (ASRs) of female breast cancer incidence increased between 1995-2012.
  • Women at age 50 or above had the largest increase in incidence of breast cancer.
  • Increasing trends of breast cancer incidence in Khon Kaen are lower than those in other regions in Thailand, but it is expected to rise significantly by 2030.

Volume 28, Issue 6 (June 2018)

The Gradual Shift of Overweight, Obesity and Abdominal Obesity towards the Poor in a Multi-ethnic Developing Country: Findings from the Malaysian National Health and Morbidity Surveys
  • Overweight/obesity among women are becoming concentrated among the poor.
  • Obesity distributions among women in Peninsular Malaysia are pro-rich.
  • Chinese women had the lowest rates and lowest increase in obesity.
  • Obesity distributions among men in Peninsular Malaysia became less pro-poor.
  • The distributions in Peninsular Malaysia are more pro-rich compared to East Malaysia.
An 18-year follow-up survey of dioxin levels in human milk in Japan
  • Dioxin levels in human milk tended to decline over time from 1998 to 2015.
  • Data from the last 5 years indicated a plateau at minimal levels.
  • An increasing trend was found in the mean age of participants in the last 5 years.
  • Significantly higher dioxin levels were found in samples from older participants.
  • Human exposure to dioxins may be approaching a minimum in recent years in Japan.

Volume 28, Issue 5 (May 2018)

Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on Body Mass Index, Weight, and Height of Infants and Toddlers: An Infant Survey
  • The Great East Japan Earthquake may have affected the growth of young children.
  • We compared the change in growth indices between affected and unaffected children.
  • Results revealed an increase in BMI towards 42 months in the children in Fukushima.
  • Analysis indicates growth disturbances in a subset of children in Fukushima.
  • Pediatricians should carefully follow these children with future risk of obesity.
Patterns and Levels of Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity in a General Japanese Population: The Hisayama Study
  • Japanese adults spent much of their day being sedentary (7–8 hours/day).
  • Over one-third of the sedentary time was accumulated in prolonged bouts ≥30 min.
  • Japanese adults engaged in very low levels of sustained bouts of physical activity.
  • The majority (65.2%) of the population did not meet physical activity guidelines.
  • Interventions for sedentary and physical activity are needed at the population level.

Volume 28, Issue 4 (April 2018)

Special Article
Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring
  • The Life Span Study is a unique and large-scale cohort study of the lifetime health outcomes of the atomic bomb survivors.
  • The Life Span Stud has confirmed increased risks of malignancies and investigated other late health effects due to atomic bomb radiatio.n
  • Survivors exposed to radiation in their mothers’ womb experienced late health effects similar to those of survivors exposed at young ages.
  • No increased risks of cancer or noncancer outcomes have been observed to date among the cohort of children conceived after their parents’ exposures to radiation.
  • The results of these cohort studies have been used by the Japanese government for the health administration and welfare of the survivors and their children.
  • Life Span Study results are the most reliable source of quantifiable risk estimates for radiation exposure and are used around the world.
Review Article
Tobacco Control Measures to Reduce Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking: The Necessity, Time-Course Perspective, and Future Implications
  • Impact of tobacco control measures on smoking inequality has been investigated.
  • A previous review found that tobacco taxation reduced smoking inequality by income.
  • To reduce smoking inequality, the inverse equity hypothesis may be a key hypothesis.
  • All measures may reduce smoking inequality, if they are continued long-term.
  • Tackling socioeconomic inequality in smoking may be a key public health target.
Modification of the Associations of Alcohol Intake With Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triglycerides by ALDH2 and ADH1B Polymorphisms in Japanese Men
  • We investigated the association between alcohol intake and serum lipid profile.
  • We examined effect modifications caused by ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms.
  • Furthermore, we also examined if the findings for ALDH2 could be replicated.
  • Serum LDL cholesterol decreased with increasing alcohol intake.
  • ALDH2 modified the association between alcohol intake and serum LDL cholesterol.

Volume 28, Issue 3 (March 2018)

  • Binge drinking was associated with a greater likelihood of having newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in adult Koreans, even in those with low average daily consumption.
  • Regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol consumption was associated with a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes in women, but not in men. This sex difference is consistent with results from previous studies.
  • The adverse health consequences of alcohol consumption on cancer and other health outcomes have led to lowering the recommended upper level of alcohol consumption in several western countries. In East Asian populations, high alcohol consumption may be of even greater public health concern because a large proportion of the population is genetically predisposed to slower metabolism of alcohol and its carcinogenic metabolite acetaldehyde.
  • The high prevalence of binge drinking and likelihood of adverse health effects of this behavior suggest that public health policies addressing binge drinking are warranted.
Association of Alcohol Drinking Patterns With Presence of Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes Mellitus Among South Korean Adults
  • The pattern of alcohol consumption is associated with the presence of IFG and DM.
  • Frequency of high-risk drinking is associated with higher risk of IFG/ DM in men.
  • Frequency of high-risk drinking is associated with higher risk of IFG in women.
  • Frequent non-high-risk drinking is associated with higher risk of DM in men.
  • Frequent non-high-risk drinking is associated with lower risk of DM in women.
Impact of Alcohol Intake and Drinking Patterns on Mortality From All Causes and Major Causes of Death in a Japanese Population
  • We examined the association of alcohol consumption with mortality risk.
  • J-shaped associations were found between alcohol intake and total mortality.
  • Mortality risk linearly increases in current drinkers as they drink more.
  • Liver holidays was associated with a lower risk of cancer/cerebrovascular mortality.
  • Necessity of drinking in moderation coupled with liver holidays are highlighted.

Volume 28, Supplement 3 (March 2018)

The National Integrated Project for Prospective Observation of Non-communicable Disease and its Trends in the Aged 2010 (NIPPON DATA2010): Objectives, Design, and Population Characteristics
  • A nationwide prospective cohort study for cardiovascular diseases was established.
  • The study assessed physical measurements, lifestyle, diet, and socioeconomic factors.
  • Outcome measures were the incidence of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus. Activities of daily life (ADL) and instrumental ADL were also surveyed as outcomes.
Macronutrient Intake and Socioeconomic Status: NIPPON DATA2010
  • Household income was inversely associated with carbohydrate intake.
  • Household income was positively associated with fat intake.
  • The risk of a high carbohydrate/low fat intake was associated with an older age.
  • Both lower household income and lower household expenditure were associated with the risk of a high carbohydrate/low fat diet.
Socioeconomic Status Associated With Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion in Japan: NIPPON DATA2010
  • We investigated associations between SES factors and Na and K intakes in Japan.
  • Participants in the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan were enrolled.
  • Amount of sodium and potassium intake were assessed by casual urine Na/K ratio and estimation of excretion in 24-hour urinary Na and K using casual urine.
  • SES factors included economic status, educational attainment, and job category.
  • Lower SES was associated with a lower K intake and higher Na/K ratio.

Volume 28, Issue 2 (February 2018)

Work Sustainability Among Male Cancer Survivors After Returning to Work
  • Work continuance rates among cancer survivors were 80.1% one year after RTW, 48.5% five years after RTW, among cancer survivors.
  • There was a steep decrease in work continuance rates during the first year after RTW, among cancer survivors.
  • The work continuance rates after RTW varied significantly by cancer type.

Volume 28, Issue 1 (January 2018)